Find food in middle rationale safety sanitation school teaching

However, it is important to create a safe and happy environment when preparing food with kids, as well as teach them how to handle food safely and hygienically. The adult can help with the more difficult tasks, such as chopping vegetables, using the stove and taking hot food out of the oven or microwave.

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Preparing a recipe from scratch can be too tricky for some children, especially younger children. However, they can still help with a number of simple tasks, such as:. Visit our kid-friendly recipes.

Skip to content. Search Go. Some rules to consider when preparing food Wear a clean apron.

Wear closed-in shoes to protect your feet, in case of hot spills or breakages. Wash your hands before and after handling food. Keep food preparation surfaces clean.

Associated Data

Tie back long hair. Store food appropriately. Wash vegetables and fruit under cold water before use. Do not run around the room where food is being prepared. During interviews and fieldwork, it was found that the diversity and density of stakeholders varied considerably between the lowland and highland settings, with a much stronger platform for RHSP in the lowlands. Among stakeholders, it was reported that all lowland villages had active and well-organized Union branches, VHWs and village heads. The seven stakeholders interviewed at the People's Committee and the staff at health clinics all agreed that owing to easy access to lowland communities and the strong platform of active village stakeholders, RHSP in the lowland area was easier to implement and conducted on a more frequent and regular basis compared with the highlands.

The two communal People's Committees and the two communal health stations from where all RHSP activities in the two communes were planned and implemented were also situated in the lowlands. In the highlands, schools were the only public institutions present, but with fewer children attending kindergarten and finishing primary or secondary school compared with lowland communities personal communication with school staff. Hygiene and sanitation was taught as part of the general school curriculum, but during very few sessions. One Youth Union group was doing occasional activities at one secondary school in the highlands assisting in cutting hair of students , while being active in more activities in the lowlands assisting in constructing water supply systems, cleaning up in villages.

Occasional outreach activities were also conducted by commune, district and province stakeholders, but were described by highland stakeholders as few and far between—conducted on a monthly basis at the most. RHSP in highland communities therefore depended heavily on the work of village heads and health workers, which was confirmed in interviews with two village heads and two VHWs in the two highland villages.

However, they spent most of their time on labour-intensive agricultural work in the hills. Hygiene and sanitation policies and guidelines are all developed at national level, e.

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Healthy Kids : Food Safety and Hygiene

When identifying and interviewing stakeholders, it was also clear that there was an overall dominance of government agencies and related organizations unions. Only one NGO was presently involved in a pilot study to test community-led total sanitation in the two study communes. Also, no private business hardware stores or contractors were seen in the communes and only a couple of skilled masons were identified, and only in the lowlands.

Hence, significant barriers existed for highland communities in particular to purchase construction materials and hire expert labour at competitive costs. Also, lowland and highland community members could not cite any informal village stakeholders being involved in any RHSP initiatives. Through interviews it was highlighted that the health and education sectors and the People's Committees system monitored progress in water and sanitation coverage by registering new water and sanitation constructions.

Data were collected by VHWs who reported to health stations and onwards to the central health authorities. In parallel, village heads reported to communal People's Committees and further on a monthly basis to the province People's Committees.


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Educational authorities reported data on new school-based constructions less frequently. Also, no surveys or evaluations including any such behaviour indicators had been carried out by any agencies in the study communes. Stakeholders therefore did not have any data on current hygiene and sanitation practices, or whether promotion activities were effective in sustaining sanitation coverage or changing key hygiene and sanitation practices.

It was not clear from interviews with stakeholders to what degree results from statistical data analysis were integrated into policy and planning processes. But it was evident from interviews with stakeholders who collected information at the community level that they did not take an active part in discussion of the data and its implications for planning and policies of RHSP.

Four main barriers for effective implementation of RHSP were identified: 1 weak inter-sectorial collaboration; 2 constraints faced by frontline promoters; 3 heavily information-based and passive promotion methods applied; and 4 context unadjusted promotion, including language and gender roles. It was observed that each government sector promoted separate aspects of RHSP to specific groups. Those things are mainly the doctor's job.

We haven't been trained for that. We don't have to go to the commune—we just work at the clinic. But the Health Department is the main unit, which leads all activities related to health. Hence, agricultural and health-related aspects, and technical and behavioural aspects, were rarely seen integrated, e. Also, little systematic collaboration was observed between the educational and other sectors, unions, parents and community leaders.

Health staff from province level would occasionally train teachers on school health and hygiene education, and on an annual basis students would receive a health check-up and de-worming. It is true! However, sometimes, I have asked some schoolteachers to help me perform the immunization programme—but that was through personal contact. The organization had funds made available on an annual basis for constructing latrines and water supply schemes in some villages, and was very active at all administrative levels in developing educational material and arranging meetings and social events for women.

However, the Women's Union maintained a strong focus on advocating to women. Frustration with carrying out hygiene and sanitation promotion was identified as a main problem among village promoters. The majority of VHWs felt that they had inadequate knowledge, skills and mandate to educate villagers and change hygiene and sanitation behaviour; even though all had a minimum of 7 years of work experience and most of them had attended a 3-day training workshop on community water, sanitation and hygiene.

I told them to eat hygienically. But they don't dig pits for excrement. The people from the commune People's Committee scolded me as they thought I didn't promote for improvements. But people in the village don't understand; they just don't do it. They community even shouted at me. It's not enough!

I really want somebody else to come here to the village. All VHWs and village heads attended regular meetings at the People's Committees and Communal Health Stations to receive directions from the authorities and to report on their activities. But none of those interviewed mentioned ever receiving collegial support or supervision by experts on these occasions.

Ten of 11 VHWs said that their major motivation to continue working was to help fellow villagers and to gain expertise in health. Stakeholders from the lowlands and from provincial and district offices mentioned the low per diems combined with long distances and poor road conditions to highland villages as the major de-motivating factors for their staff to perform outreach activities.

The main communication method was one-way information and educational talks at village and union meetings or in schools Table 2. Most school-based hygiene and sanitation education was taught in similar educational lectures. Despite this observation by frontline staff, all interviewed province, district and union stakeholders had plans to continue the current approach for the coming years. Only three interactive promotion activities were identified during interviews and fieldwork, including practical weekly village clean-up campaigns in lowland villages and some schools, and occasional demonstrations of household water filters and latrines Table 2.

Only two VHWs and one village head did occasional household visits to monitor actual latrine use and standards, while the rest of the village stakeholders said they had no time to visit all community members. Two provincial stakeholders mentioned alternative approaches to engage the community: long-term commitments with communities and piloting more innovative teaching methods at schools.

Highland groups practised different types of farming, religions and rituals and did not all speak or understand Kinh language. They just use water casually. In daily life they are used to their old habits and therefore they don't pay attention. Most village stakeholders stressed that promoted hygiene and sanitation solutions were unaffordable, unpractical or un-favoured, within the living conditions and preferences of their communities.

Several village heads had therefore stopped promoting latrines, despite being responsible for increasing sanitation coverage in their villages. Using soap for handwashing was also difficult to promote with soap being perceived by highlanders as unaffordable, and according to observations also often unavailable in the few highland shops. Interviews with stakeholders revealed that no low-cost alternatives to soap had been promoted e. Outreach officers from commune, district and province were all Kinh or of lowland origin and had to make use of village stakeholders as translators during meetings.

This presented a potential problem for minority children to understand hygiene and sanitation messages. As previously described, a gender divide clearly existed in RHSP, with the strongest focus on women for domestic and personal hygiene and on men for technical aspects of environmental sanitation and water supply.

Restaurant & food safety

All stakeholders also agreed that women rarely attended village meetings and that husbands would rarely inform wives about the information given there. But no interviewed stakeholders mentioned the need to bridge this gap by involving men and women in all aspects of sanitation and water supply.

Instead all stakeholders uniformly mentioned the Women's Union as an appropriate stakeholder to communicate RHSP to women. However, as described earlier, with few women's groups or active female communicators present in the highlands, many women here remained un-reached. The need for innovation in Vietnamese RHSP is apparent from this study, especially among ethnic minorities who carry high burdens of hygiene and sanitation-related diseases, differ from the main population in terms of socio-economic and cultural backgrounds, and live in areas where the platform for government-based promotion is weak.

The following section discusses how challenges can be targeted and future RHSP strengthened. Little collaboration was found across sectors for RHSP in the studied province, including little integration of hardware and software components, limited cross-sectorial co-operation and limited opportunities for bottom-up feedback from local to central level stakeholders in RHSP. A recent study of health priority integration in Vietnam found similar vertical and disintegrated implementation approaches for HIV and tuberculosis programmes Conseil et al.

The study highlighted that absence of shared targets and approaches across functional levels and sectors may result in sub-optimal effectiveness and efficiency of each health programme. Evidence is ample that integrating communicable disease programmes into health systems in low-income countries can increase programme effectiveness, quality and efficiency Shigayeva et al.

This study indicates a need to reconsider such a sector-specific and vertical approach to health programmes in Vietnam. This approach proved successful in building capacity and collaboration between leaders at the communal level Hien Le et al. The importance of collaboration among health promotion experts and community stakeholders was also found to contribute successfully to a trachoma prevention intervention conducted between and in a rural area of Vietnam Khandekar et al.

Local task forces, possibly lead by commune authorities, can integrate soft- and hard-ware aspects and co-ordinate promotion activities in time and space, taking into account the contextual and ethnic differences of multi-ethnic target groups. Central level stakeholders should contribute with valuable technical and financial advice to support local initiatives.

Co-operation between the public and private sectors in the Vietnamese water and sanitation sector is still weak, but small-scale projects have found that such partnerships can effectively increase rural sanitation coverage of Vietnam WSP-EAP ; Phan et al.